While the standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) is critical for preclinical and early clinical evaluation of vaccines targeting human-to-mosquito transmission, the direct membrane-feeding assay (DMFA) and direct feeding assay (DFA) may be more relevant for field studies. These assays are also complex and much work is needed to better understand the variability of the assays, as well as their relationships to each other and to the SMFA. A number of projects have been funded that will address critical gaps in our knowledge of the DMFA and DFA and how they relate to the SMFA.